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Le Novita'  Corsi, Fiere Dizionario  Consulenza Gratis PRENOTA UNA VISITA

The first chapter of Visology
Autore: Flavio Gazzola, MD

I want to find a publisher in English speaking world for my book on the extraordinary method of diagnosis and therapy.

The book is already professionally translated in English

For this purpose I publish now on the net the first chapter of my book

Flavio Gazzola, MD, Via Libertà 74, 20097 San Donato Milanese, flarida@tin.it


Visologia (Visology)




Flavio Gazzola


Visology is described in the book

“Visology, diagnosis and therapy by facial signs”

Sugarco Edizioni, 2003, 2006

Visologia® and Visology® are names registered in the world



Birth of visology


This book is the result of thirty years of research begun in the 1970s on the subject of visology, that is to say the study of facial signs as indicators of a specific dysfunction of one or more internal organs or functions relating to them. The ability to recognize a health condition or any pathological change merely by studying the face enables not only doctors but everyone to monitor their own or someone else’s health, without resorting to any other means. Such a possibility revolutionizes the approach to health matters, especially where children are concerned, and babies in particular, since collecting symptoms is impossible in their case, and conducting an objective examination is almost as difficult. A child’s face tells us far more than an adult’s, and through daily observation it is easy to see the effects of diet and/or therapy. I aim here is to address not only doctors but above all parents, since you are in the front line when it comes to caring for your children’s health.  Then, where adults are concerned, examining the face is a sure way of detecting changes in body functions that may still be undetectable through blood tests or other means.

          My knowledge of facial signs comes from daily diagnoses, following a five-stage sequence: 


  1. Careful compilation of both present and past symptoms.
  2. An overall examination that naturally includes inspecting the face, tongue and skin in general; feeling the abdomen, muscles, connective tissues, hearing apparatus, pulse and sole of the foot; listening to the chest (for breathing and heart); and examining posture, that is the way of standing, walking and moving.
  3. Examination of the iris by means of an optic microscope fitted with high definition video camera to record the test and transmit the images to the computer for processing, so as to review the data in detail.  The iris, in fact, is closely connected to the whole body, and any change in it concerns a specific part of the body. Irisology, that is the study of the relationship between the iris and the rest of the body, makes it possible to identify psycho-physical traits inherited from parents, weak points in the individual’s constitution, any changes in progress, and the biological ages when the person might be subject to physical or psychic disorders. It also makes it possible to establish if and when any psychosomatic shocks have occurred in the past.  
  4.  Bio-electronic controls, that is measuring the electric values of acupuncture pricks, especially in the hands and feet, by means of two main techniques: electro-acupuncture according to Voll (EAV) and Ryodoraku. Systematic research conducted from the 1950s (Voll in Germany, DeLaFuye in France, and Nakatami, founder of Ryodoraku, in Japan) demonstrates a close connection between acupuncture pricks and internal organs. This means that every pinprick connects the skin surface with a function and/or internal organ. By measuring a pinprick electronically, it is possible to establish whether or not its value is normal or pathological and consequently whether or not the related   organ is normal and/or functioning normally. 
  5. Other examinations: blood tests, x-rays, specialist visits, according to the case.



Compiling the symptoms and clinical history (stage 1) is essential in order to understand the recurrent problems revealed in the objective examination (stage 2). Because of the close connection between them, certain areas of the body (such as the hearing apparatus, sole of the foot, tongue and from now on the face, of course, provide invaluable information on the state of all the internal organs. Likewise the iris (stage 3) is an area that reflects the whole body and is thus able to ensure a more specific diagnosis. In stage 4 measuring acupuncture pricks makes it possible to obtain an exact impression of every detail. Confirmation and further investigation belong to stage 5.


Scientific investigation of visology


The reason why the science I have termed visology, that is the study of face signs relating to internal organs, has not yet been accorded the attention it deserves - even in traditional Chinese medicine with its thousands of years of history - can be attributed to its complexity. This is partly due to the fact that as many as two or three different signs relating to the various organs may appear on different parts of the face, or even on the same part. As already stated, it has only been possible to identify organic or functional changes inside the body through highly refined methods of investigation, such as bio-electronic controls (in particular EAV, that is to say electro-acupuncture according to Voll, and Ryodoraku); irisology (the whole organism reflected in the iris); other reflexologies, like those of the hearing apparatus, foot, tongue, abdomen, and skull; alterations in  spinal muscle tone,  showing signs of damage to internal organs; and anthroscopy or high frequency densitometry - a method of scansion using radio waves radiated inwards into the body and reflected according to the degree of density of the underlying tissues.  It is with the help of all these techniques that I have been able to produce my visology and correspondence map between facial areas and body organs.

     In order to create the visological map I have taken into account maps published by oriental authors as well as the face map (titled “Physiognomy”) by my naturopath Swiss friend Natale Ferronato. My visology is, however, a major breakthrough as it is the first work to provide an organic and detailed reading key to the face, together with a solid base for further investigation. This gives doctors the opportunity to add to their diagnostic skills and people in general the chance to identify the source of problems and thus pre-empt illness. 

     Visology belongs to the broad chapter on reflexologies to be found in my book Helping, the key to wellbeing, published by Sugarco in 1986. By reflexology is meant the study of reflexes, that is so to say the diagnostic and therapeutic relations that exist between one body area – like the outer ear, skull, iris, nasal cavities, tongue, abdomen, individual fingers, hands, feet, face – and the rest of the body. It is more correct in such cases to speak of “zone reflexologies”, to distinguish them from classic Chinese acupuncture, for example, which extends to the entire skin surface and can thus be called a “general reflexology”. Where the zone kind is concerned, the whole body is represented in one single part, making it possible not only to diagnose but advise therapy as well, since by stimulating one area, a long-distance effect is obtained on the corresponding organ. This is valid for visology, of course, even if in this book I only describe the diagnostic aspects.

   The obvious diagnostic advantage of visology is that the face is the most exposed part of the body and for this reason it is possible to learn a great deal from it even before the patient says a word. In spite of this, as already stated, visology has not received much attention. Naturally, the significance of certain changes in the face is well known in medicine, such as eye-socket swelling to indicate possible kidney malfunction; a yellowish colour of the sclera (whites of the eyes), indicative of liver disease; a bluish tinge often indicative of chronic bronchitis; pallor, which may indicate anaemia; brown colouring, which may indicate adrenal insufficiency, and so on. Visology does include such observations, but it deals specifically with partial changes to areas of the face until now more or less neglected by medicine. It is no coincidence that a skin rash appears on one part of the face rather than another, as that part will have a direct correspondence to a diseased internal organ. There may be partial changes revealed generally all over the face, as we have just mentioned.


Facial signs


   Facial signs can be divided into five big categories: inflammatory, hypo-functional, degenerative, constitutional, and traumatic.

1.      Inflammatory signs consist of various kinds of redness of the skin, including spots and acne; they usually indicate acute or sub-acute inflammatory processes or the onset of an acute stage in a tissue with chronic problems.

2.      Hypo-functional signs are dark in coloured, from dark red to purple or brown and/or are tissue-related swellings; they indicate processes tending from a sub-acute stage towards a chronic condition, that is a permanent nature of the problem, albeit in a mild form. The organ or organs involved are unable to perform their duties fully. Often the inflammatory signs merge with hypo-functional ones, when an already weak organ is hit by an acute illness, as when a smoker with chronic pharyng/laryng-itis (inflammation of the pharynx and larynx), is struck by influenza.

3.      Degenerative signs include: moles, when they increase rapidly in volume, changing colour and shape; skin fibromata; alteration or accentuation in expression lines, which become deeper, deviate, branch out, are interrupted (which takes on a particular diagnostic and prognostic importance where the cardiac and colon are concerned); areas of de-pigmentation due to vitiligo or skin fungi, which are revealed in specific areas; the return of verrucae or warts in the same spot; evident, persistent swelling in specific areas of the face; hollow areas. All these signs indicate an important reduction in the functioning of an organ and/or cancer risk.

4.      Constitutional signs are congenital, such as birthmarks or naevi and indicate areas of weakness inherited from one’s forebears. At least 75% of constitutional marks can be explained just by knowing the clinical history of parents and grandparents.

5.      Traumatic signs such as scars, keloids and bruises must be recognized as such and not confused with any others.


The origin of facial signs


Facial signs derive from the following major factors:


1.  Genetic.

  1. Traumatic.
  2. Infective or degenerative, owing to problems with contiguous organs, in particular: teeth, gums, oral area in general, nostrils, para-nasal sinuses, pharynx, tonsils, tongue, salivary glands, eyes and ears.
  3. Muscular (wrinkles, lines, contours).
  4. Vascular: regulation of the trophism of the facial areas.
  5. Glandular (sebaceous and sweat-producing activities of the glands, their obstruction and/or possible inflammation).
  6. Vegetative: concerned with the regulation of vascular trophism and activity of the sebaceous glands on the part of sympathetic and para-sympathetic nerve branches.
  7. Lymphatic: lymphatic stasis, due to such problems as dental, gingival, para-nasal, tonsil, or pharyngeal infections.
  8. Trigeminal: the trigeminal nerves indirectly regulate the muscular, vascular, glandular and vegetative activities, transmitting information from the face to the central nervous system as well as collecting pain stimuli coming from areas of the face subject to inflammation or degeneration.


Visology and hygiene as preventive measures in medicine


   The aim of visology is to make a contribution to preventive medicine. Facial signs are one of the first indications of problems in the organism.

   To maintain health or restore it without necessarily resorting to medicines or specific therapy, a hygienic lifestyle is essential.  It all comes down to following a correct diet, doing physical exercise, cultivating positive thoughts, joyful and loving emotions, and satisfying the spiritual needs inherent in all human beings.

   Human beings can be considered tripartite, consisting of a head, chest and abdomen. The head is mainly responsible for the psychic function, the chest for the cardio-respiratory function and the abdomen for the metabolic, kidney, genital, digestive and intestinal functions. The face is a clear transmitter of signs deriving from mental or sensorial disorders, as well as cardio-respiratory, digestive, intestinal, kidney, genital, and metabolical ones. The head has its main visological representation at the level of the forehead and temples; the chest at the level of the lower two-thirds of the nose, on the inside of the eyes and cheekbones; the abdomen on the upper level of the nose in the area below the eyes, as well as the cheeks and chin.  The presence of signs on the face indicates the area and the function affected, making it possible to pre-empt illness thanks to some simple rules related to a hygienic lifestyle.




Rules of hygiene and healthy living represent the cornerstone of preventive medicine, starting with those governing a correct diet. Here are some basic principles:

  1. the emotions during a meal should always be positive, as it is good to avoid arguments at table;
  2. attention during the meal should be focused on the food and possibly to light conversation among those present, never topics associated with work. As much as possible limit reading or looking at television during the meal;
  3. never be in a hurry at table: if you are in a hurry, it is far better to skip the meal;
  4. the food should be chewed calmly and evenly until broken down completely. It is from the mouth that electric as well as chemical signals are sent by the nerves directed towards the stomach in order to inform it of the kind of food to expect and to allow the digestive organs (stomach, duodenum, bile duct, pancreas) to prepare the acidity level and amount of enzyme suitable for the digestion of that particular kind of food. For example proteins, especially red meat, but also white meat, cheese and vegetables, need a greater level of acidity (and different enzymes) to be digested well, as opposed to cereals. Therefore one should not eat at the same meal spaghetti, macaroni, or rice as first course, followed by meat for second, but if you are eating meat it should be accompanied by green vegetables, and the same goes for cereals. There are other combinations of food to avoid, but the combination of cereals and meat, or protein in general, is the main one;
  5. it is advisable to use as little salt as possible, to avoid having to drink a lot during a meal. It is in fact preferable to have plenty to drink between meals, to avoid diluting the digestive juices and altering their level of acidity;
  6. avoid having sweet drinks during a meal, for the same reasons as those listed at point 5;
  7. avoid habitual consumption of toasted sandwiches, rolls, pizza, fried food, or sweet food. The presence of fats that join together in giant molecules (macromolecules) during frying is hard on the digestion, as are the fats used in the preparation of sweet foods. The combination of bread and meat in rolls and toasted sandwiches, like that of melted cheese and pizza dough is difficult to digest, since protein (meat and cheese) and carbohydrates (bread and pastry) need different levels of acidity to be digested well (see point 4);
  8. the habitual consumption of milk tends to cause inflammation of the intestine. Pasteurized milk contains few or no bacteria capable of digesting it on their own, so it takes longer and requires more effort for the organism to digest it, as well as a greater use of enzymes, to such a point as to cause indigestion. When there are no more enzymes to digest the milk, signs of inflammation appear on the area of the face corresponding to the intestine. As, on the contrary, yogurt is a living foodstuff, containing bacteria capable of self-digestion, it is advisable to get into the habit of consuming yogurt at breakfast instead of milk. At present there are kinds of milk on sale with added bacteria similar to yogurt and thus easier to digest, as long as no more than one glass at a time is consumed. If babies get signs of inflammation on their faces in the intestinal zone, it means that the mother is in the habit of eating something she finds hard to digest (and thus making her milk less digestible for her baby) or that she is not following the rule indicated above. If the signs appear on the baby’s face during weaning, it is likely that the milk being used for weaning purposes is hard for the baby to digest and needs to be changed;
  9. it is essential for the health of the organism to overcome constipation, and to do this correctly it is necessary to observe a few simple rules:

     a). drink at least a litre and a half of water during the day between meals

     b). drink a glass of warm water in the morning on waking;

     c). include in your diet a plentiful amount of food rich in fibre, as found in most green vegetables and whole-meal cereals. However, whole-meal cereals should not be over-used, as for many people they may be hard to digest and should be gradually introduced into the diet, and no more than three times a week, at least initially;

     d). do physical exercise every day so as to exercise all the joints, especially those in the spinal column. It is good practice to perform these exercises in the morning before showering and having breakfast, but it is also useful to attend a gym at least twice a week and do exercises in the open air at the weekend. Massage the sole of the foot every evening before going to bed, resting the sole on a tennis ball or, even better, using a special wooden massaging device, made something like an abacus, on which to rub the foot. In fact the sole of the foot includes a reflex projection of the intestine whereby stimulating the foot also stimulates intestinal activity;

    e). avoid making habitual use of purges including milky coffee as milk and coffee taken together often have an irritating and purgative effect. In fact if often used together they tend to cause chronic irritation to the intestine causing a spastic colon that is an intestine habitually contracted, which in its turn aggravates constipation, obliging the person to increase the quantity of purgatives thus entering into a vicious circle. Finally the intestine, after a long spastic period, collapses and loses muscle tone, that is the intestinal wall ceases to exert its peristaltic expulsion of the faeces, and the rectal ampulla and sigmoid colon over-dilates, filling up with faecal material, causing the organism to poison itself through reabsorbing toxic products present in the faeces, and even worse, increasing the risk of cancer of the bowel;

    f). avoid resorting habitually to any kind of  enema, which might seem indispensable when the intestine has lost its tone but in the long run makes it even more lazy and does little more than clean up the rectal ampulla. Instead, it is necessary at this point to change lifestyle drastically and shape up as indicated in the previous points. However, if you find yourself suffering from chronic constipation, you have to realize that it is not only the rectum and sigmoid colon (the bottom parts of the intestine) that are coated with faeces, but the rest of the colon and large intestine as well. Shaped like a horseshoe, it extends from the appendix area (caecum) to the right below the navel and on towards the liver (ascending or hepatic curve of the colon), then towards the spleen (transverse colon that crosses the abdomen from right to left), at which level it bends (left or spleen curve of the colon), to descend (descending colon) towards the (s-shaped) sigmoid colon, and finally the rectum;

    g). to clean out such incrustations, which can be widely extended and when extracted have the shape of a large horseshoe, traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) advises a seasonal Panchakarma, in other words the application in spring of seven enemas, three in the first week, two in the second, one in the third and one in the fourth. To carry out the enema it is necessary to boil a litre and a half of water for fifteen minutes and then let it stand at about 30˚C, adding a spoonful of olive oil. You then lie down on your right side and the liquid is siphoned in gradually as long as you can retain it, but during the irrigation it is necessary to change position little by little till you are lying flat and therefore almost on your left side so that the liquid can reach the whole of the colon. This annual practice makes it possible to free the organism from faecal incrustations, the toxic parts of which are expelled through the skin giving it an unhealthy look;

    h). replace coffee, at least in the morning, with barley coffee or other substitutes based on barley, chicory or toasted cereals; also limit the consumption to no more than one cup a day, and only in the afternoon. Between seven and nine o’clock in the morning, as traditional Chinese medicine tells us, the stomach presents its highest concentration of acids, extracted from the blood into the mucus glands; therefore drinking coffee, especially before breakfast, stimulates the secretion of such acid in the gut and aggravates irritation in the gastric mucosa, especially in persons already susceptible to gastric problems.

   It is possible to appreciate the effectiveness of  these simple principles especially in facial areas relating to the digestive and intestinal apparatus. Irregularities and spots on the cheekbone, cheeks and chin disappear since the health of the urogenital apparatus (represented on the chin) largely depends on the state of the intestines, especially in women, whose genital organs, being internal, are thus more affected by inflammation coming from the intestine through the lymph vessels.




   It is also necessary to understand the importance of breathing correctly. Every day about 10,000 litres of blood pass through the capillaries of the pulmonary alveoli, giving out carbon dioxide and absorbing oxygen. According to yoga through respiration we not only eliminate waste material and absorb oxygen but also inhale Prana, that is the universal life principle mixed with the air. Correct breathing therefore purifies, nourishes and enlivens, hence its importance. Here are some general considerations related to it.

  1. Smoking and atmospheric pollution impede correct breathing. In big cities it is practically impossible to escape pollution but, whenever possible, we should try to spend our free time in parks in the city or get away to the mountains or the sea, walking or cycling to inhale pure air, together with Prana, that vital force present in it.
  2. Smoking causes pulmonary pollution and, in the long run, respiratory insufficiency; it also increases the risk of heart disease and lung cancer. Therefore a smoker who thinks anything of himself and his family must make a great effort to give up smoking -  the sooner the better. He needs help from his own will power, but acupuncture can play its part too, especially of the ear, together with some particular homeopathic methods. On the ear auricle there are some areas related to nerve centres which regulate the content of chemical substances in the blood, including, in the case of habitual smokers, nicotine. As soon as the smoker stops, the amount of nicotine in the blood falls and the nerve centres, now accustomed to the smoke, notice the lack and require more nicotine from the cerebral cortex (seat of consciousness and starting point for voluntary acts), from which comes the craving to smoke. A series of pinpricks in the auricular auricle at points corresponding to the nerve centres regulating the nicotine creates an electric interference which prevents it from noticing the drop in nicotine in the blood and therefore enables the smoker to be weaned of the habit. During the weaning stage and even after it, for at least a year, it is useful to have inhalations at home with oil essences. The inhalator must not be confused with aerosol apparatus since it gives out hot vapour able to dissolve chronic catarrh and expel pollution particles. After filling the inhalator reservoir with distilled water and waiting for it to warm up and begin to emit steam, the tube is immersed in a glass of water, in which (according to the concentration) from three to ten drops of oil essences of eucalyptus, thyme and niaouli (malaleuca) are added, to disinfect and dissolve the mucus.
  3. In any case, have inhalations at least once a week during winter to stave off influenza.
  4. Do yoga respiration exercises, gradually trying to make them a habit. Standing or sitting, but with straight back, inhale the air through your nose and fill your lungs right down to the bottom. Then, pushing with the diaphragm down to the abdomen, imagine you are pushing the bottom of your lungs downwards so as to make them expand almost into the abdomen; then draw in the diaphragm upwards and, contracting the abdominal muscles, push the air towards the central and upper parts of the chest, in a wave-like movement, so as to expand first the middle, then the upper part of the lungs. Finally, breathe the air out.


Meditation and psychic function.


   Never before have we seen such a dichotomy between the inner and outer world of a human being. All day long we struggle so hard to assert ourselves in the outside world, with such an expenditure of energy and will that by the end of the day we have lost sight of our real selves, our inner world.

   Meditation and prayer provide the means to retrieve this inner world. Short prayers before meals and evening prayers are essential measures for ensuring spiritual health. With mealtime prayers, even said under our breath or silently, we prepare our digestive and intestinal organs in the best possible way to receive the food, acknowledging in it the material sort of life and recognizing its miraculous transformation into energy, not only physical, but mental and spiritual as well. Evening prayers permit us to recapitulate on the events of the day, giving expression to the emotions we have experienced - negative ones in particular - so as to prevent them from weighing us down in the future. Negative emotions, if not adequately expressed, stay in the mind and form an obstacle since they direct thought back into the past instead of keeping it in the present, where reality exists, preventing us from forming positive thoughts for the future. If someone has done us harm and we feel bitter, pray for them to be better, but at the same time we should ask ourselves honestly if we have done anything bad, and resolve to remedy any mistakes we may have committed. Morning prayer should be what is called in yoga “letting the sunshine in”, greeting the daily miracle of the return of the sun. We should give thanks for the miraculous energy the sun provides, and try to store it up spiritually, so as to let it out in the course of the day. While evening prayers purify, morning prayers act as a tonic.

     Mealtime prayers are associated with the metabolical pole, the production of heat and electro-chemical energy, evening prayers with the thoracic pole, that is affective polarity. Morning prayers have to do with the link between mankind and the cosmos, represented by the head pole. Meditation is implicit in prayer but at the same time distinct from it. With prayer we acknowledge and abandon ourselves to a superior spiritual order that embraces and penetrates us. With meditation we recognize our own spiritual nature and abandon ourselves to it. Meditation is abandon, letting ourselves go. During the day, in order to survive, we have to play a part in the outside world, at work and even in the family. It is our function to guarantee the physical and moral survival of the society we belong to. But when “evening” comes we can cast off the costumes we have worn and abandon ourselves to our naked spiritual being, beyond time and space. In other words we should enter into a state exclusively for ourselves, abandon our thinking mind and follow, or rather abandon ourselves to, the intuitive, artistic mind. Such abandonment is a reward in itself. Letting ourselves go is not a willful act but an instinctive one, like forgetting about the body as we float in the sea, rocked by the waves with a sublime feeling of pleasure.

     We can let ourselves go in many ways: listening to music, composing, painting, having sex, but the sense of abandon must be a conscious experience, not artificially produced by medicines or drugs. This is the worst mistake anyone can make - to have grasped the importance of letting oneself go, but trying to achieve it with the help of external means and thus  sacrifice awareness, making the exercise not only futile but harmful.




The effects of the measures set out above can be observed at the level of the digestive and intestinal organs, areas of the throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, pulmonary tracts and all the areas of the body. The skin is cleansed, made radiant, smooth and resistant. A healthy state of body, mind and soul is assured.





Areas of Visology


The face is divided in about 60 areas and each of them corresponds to an internal organ, so that it is possible to know the internal condition of organs and functions of the body observing the modification of the skin of the face.


It is possible to obtain a therapeutic effect on each organ or function, treating the corresponding area of the face with different kinds of treatments: e.g. acupuncture, micromassage, diatermic stimulations, etc.


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